|Headquarters||New York and Paris|
|Key People||Jeffrey Sprecher, CEO; Duncan Niederauer, President; Jan-Michiel Hessels, Chairman; Marshall Carter, Deputy Chairman|
|Products||Cash equities, futures and options on interest rates, equity indexes, bonds and commodities, and market data|
NYSE Euronext (NYSE/New York and Euronext/Paris: NYX) was the holding company created by the combination of NYSE Group, Inc. (parent of the New York Stock Exchange) and Euronext N.V. It was launched on April 4, 2007. The merger created the first transatlantic stock and derivatives exchange - following a fierce takeover battle for control of Euronext between the NYSE Group and Deutsche Boerse - and incorporates the world's largest cash equities exchange and the third-ranked futures platform.
In June 2014, Euronext detached itself from ICE and from NYSE through an IPO. ICE sold the last of its shares in Euronext, completing its exit from the business, in December 2014. NYSE and Euronext are now separate businesses.
NYSE Euronext's equities markets—the New York Stock Exchange, NYSE Euronext, NYSE MKT, NYSE Alternext and NYSE Arca—represented one-third of the world's equities trading. Together they offered trading, clearing and settlement in approximately 8,000 listed issues (excluding European Structured Products) from more than 55 countries. NYSE Euronext also operated the derivatives exchanges NYSE Liffe in Europe, and NYSE Liffe U.S. Those two exchanges were separated from NYSE Euronext and their products transitioned to ICE Futures U.S. and ICE Clear U.S. beginning June 9, 2014.
NYSE Euronext was ranked as the world's fouth-largest derivatives exchange by contract volume in 2012, putting it below the National Stock Exchange of India and above the Korea Exchange, according to the annual Futures Industry Association's survey of the world's leading derivatives exchanges, released in March 2013.
Acquisitions and Partnerships
- In June of 2009 NYSE Euronext closed a deal with the State of Qatar to turn the Doha Securities Market (DSM) into an international cash and derivatives exchange. NYSE Euronext invested $200 million for a 20 percent stake in DSM. NYSE Euronext and Qatar Holding rebranded the Doha Securities Market as "The Qatar Exchange".  The exchange uses NYSE Euronext technology for its cash and derivatives markets.
- NYSE Euronext acquired the American Stock Exchange (Amex) in October of 2008. It briefly changed the name of Amex to NYSE Alternext in December 2008, but then rebranded it as NYSE Amex in March of 2009. The total cost of the deal was $260 million in NYSE Euronext common stock, plus additional shares for Amex members of NYSE Euronext common stock based on the net proceeds from the expected sale of Amex’s lower Manhattan headquarters. On June 17, 2008, NYSE Euronext and Amex announced that members of The Amex Membership Corporation (AMC) had approved the adoption of the merger agreement between AMC and NYSE Euronext and some subsidiaries.
- Through its affiliate Euronext NV, NYSE Euronext acquired a 5 percent equity position in the Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX), India’s largest commodity derivatives exchange, in July of 2008. The 5 percent equity investment was the maximum equity interest permitted by a single foreign investor in exchanges under current Indian law. NYSE Euronext held a 4.73 percent stake in September 2013 but sold almost all of it off in the fourth quarter of 2013 after MCX fell into regulatory troubles.
- On Nov. 6, 2008, NYSE Euronext announced it had signed a development partnership with the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange as part of the exchange’s “major expansion in Asia.”
- NYSE Euronext developed its Universal Trading Platform, an electronic trading platform, and began trading NYSE Euronext's European bond markets in December 2008. The platform rolled out across its cash equities, options and futures markets in the US and Europe during 2009.
- In January 2009, NYSE Euronext received approval for a joint venture with BIDS Trading to launch a new block trading venue to allow dark orders on BIDS to interact with displayed and reserve orders on NYSE. The venue is set to launch on Jan. 29, 2009, and to be called The New York Block Exchange (NYBX). It will operate as a facility of NYSE and be accessible via BIDS Trading and open to all NYSE members.
- NYSE Euronext partnered with BNP Paribas SA, HSBC Holdings Plc and JPMorgan Chase & Co. to create SmartPool, which began trading European stocks on Feb. 2, 2009. As of July of 2009, 17 brokerages, including Knight Capital Group Inc., Exane SA, Instinet Europe Ltd., Investment Technology Group Inc., Credit Suisse, UBS and Nomura were sending orders to SmartPool.
- On June 18, 2009, NYSE Euronext and The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (DTCC) agreed to create a joint venture for clearing U.S. fixed income derivatives called New York Portfolio Clearing. NYPC offers risk management, clearing and settlement for U.S. fixed income securities and derivatives.
- In July of 2009, it was revealed that NYSE Euronext, along with the White House and Pentagon, had been the subject of "denial of service" cyber attacks. The exchange issued a statement saying that such an attack had not and could not impact the trading and data systems of NYSE Euronext markets, which operate on private networks. The exchange said it would continue to work with authorities on the situation.
- On Aug. 27, 2009, NYSE Euronext said it would buy NYFIX Inc. in a $144 million all-cash transaction to bolster its trading technology. NYSE Technologies, Inc. (a subsidiary of NYSE Euronext), will acquire the New York-based company at $1.675 per share, roughly a 95 percent premium over NYFIX's most recent 86 cents-per-share closing price.
- On May 12, 2010, NYSE Euronext said that it would terminate its contract with LCH.Clearnet and start clearing its trades in-house.
- In June 2010, NYSE Euronext sold a trading platform to the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE). Polish Treasury Minister Aleksander Grad said earlier in June that the WSE was in talks with a strategic partner that may, after the company's initial public offering planned for November, buy a minority stake in the exchange from the Treasury.
- In July 2010, the exchange doubled the number of electronic market makers, so called e-specialists, in 650 options classes. Interactive Brokers Group unit Timber Hill, Integral Derivatives, Wolverine Trading, Susquehanna Securities and Morgan Stanley joined Goldman Sachs Group Inc., UBS AG, Citigroup Inc., Barclays PLC, and Citadel, which had served as e-specialists since February.
- In July 2010, the exchange launched a new London-based securities market, NYSE Euronext London. Similar to its existing Continental Europe venue, the new launch aims to attract international issuers looking to list in London. NYSE Euronext London offers international issuers the opportunity to list shares and depositary receipts on the Official List of the UK Listing Authority. In addition, issuers will benefit from access to a broad investor base and having their securities trade on NYSE Euronext’s Universal Trading Platform that connects all its European securities markets. This provides international issuers access to the largest equity market in Europe with a combined market capitalization of 3.3 trillion euro and over 6 billion euro of equity securities traded daily.
- Also in July of 2010, NYSE Euronext announced it would develop Europe's first electronic platform for trading corporate bonds. The pan-Europen Multilateral Trading Facility (MTF) was to be done in response to specifications issued by the Cassiopeia Committee on Apr. 26, 2010.
- In early August 2010, CEO Duncan Niederauer said expansion of the exchange group's U.S. derivatives business would likely be delayed until 2011 due to a regulatory logjam in response to the May 6 flash crash and the financial reform bill signed into law in July. Niederauer said it may be January before its U.S. futures arm can launch new interest-rate products because regulators have to first approve its plans for a new clearinghouse.
- In early February 2011, Deutsche Boerse and NYSE Euronext announced that they were in "advanced talks" to merge. The proposed deal would give Deutsche Boerse's shareholders 60 percent control and create a global exchange "behemoth" with more than $20 trillion in annual trading volume.
- On April 1, 2011, Nasdaq OMX and ICE made a counter-offer to acquire NYSE Euronext for $11.3 billion, a 19 percent premium over the price proposed by Deutsche Boerse. As part of the proposal, ICE would purchase NYSE Euronext’s derivatives businesses, and NASDAQ OMX would retain NYSE Euronext’s remaining businesses, including the NYSE Euronext stock exchanges in New York, Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam and Lisbon, as well as the U.S. options business. ICE and NASDAQ OMX would continue to operate as separate businesses. NYSE Euronext continued to rebuff repeated takeover attempts from Nasdaq OMX and ICE, maintaining that their counter-offer did not "provide compelling value" and had "unacceptable execution risk." 
- In July 2011, Deutsche Boerse won shareholder support for its $9 billion merger with NYSE Euronext, clearing one of the biggest hurdles to the merger. More than 80 percent of the outstanding shares of Deutsche Boerse approved the tender offer.
- On Aug. 1, 2011, NYSE Euronext made a strategic acquisition of provider of market access products Metabit in an effort to accelerate growth in Asia. It was announced that Metabit would operate as a product line within the NYSE Technologies portfolio. The transaction was expected to close in third quarter of 2011. Terms of the acquisition were not disclosed.
- In January of 2013, Russell Indexes and NYSE Euronex announced a global alliance that would span three distinct NYSE Euronext business lines and multiple geographies, as well as several facets of Russell’s global index business. The agreement included the transition of RussellTick, an index feed for real-time, intra-day values for the Russell family of indexes in the U.S. and globally, to NYSE Technologies’ Global Index Feed (GIF) protocol and extensive global distribution. Approximately $3.9 trillion in assets are currently benchmarked to the Russell Indexes globally. The alliance also included a commitment to develop additional joint global services and products, such as new index-based options.
On August 27, 2010, NYSE Euronext's U.S. data center in Mahwah, N.J. completed the migration of more than 4,500 equities issues listed on the New York Stock Exchange and NYSE Amex. NYSE Euronext completed the transition to Mahwah of NYSE Arca and NYSE Amex options, as well as NYSE Arca equities, in April of 2011.
Jeffrey Sprecher became the CEO of NYSE Euronext when the Intercontinental Exchange bought NYSE Euronext in December of 2013. He took over that position from Duncan Niederauer, who became NYSE Euronext's president.
Other former senior executives included:
- Mary L. Brienza, Executive Vice President & General Auditor
- Vincent Van Dessel, Chairman & Chief Executive Officer of NYSE Euronext Brussels
- John K. Halvey, Group Executive Vice President & General Counsel
- Luis Laginha de Sousa, Chairman & CEO of Euronext Lisbon
- Catherine Langlais, Executive Legal Director & General Counsel
- Roland Bellegarde, Group Executive Vice President & Head of European Execution
NYSE Euronext was ranked as the world's fourth-largest derivatives exchange by contract volume in 2012, maintaining their position from 2010, according to the Futures Industry Association's annual survey of the world's leading derivatives exchanges.
According to the 2012 FIA report, the number of contracts traded on NYSE Euronext fell by 14.5 percent in 2012 to 1.95 billion contracts, ranking it between the National Stock Exchange of India and the Korea Exchange.
|Year||Total Annual Volume*||Percent Change|
|NYSE Liffe Europe||955,802,220||(-) 16.8%|
|NYSE Amex Options||564,814,869||(-) 8.7%|
|NYSE Arca Options||411,936,938||(-) 16.8%|
|NYSE Liffe U.S.||18,822,393||(-) 9.9%|
|NYSE Euronext||1,951,376,420||(-) 14.5%|
NYSE Group Companies
|New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)|
|The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the world's largest and most liquid cash equities exchange. For 215 years, the NYSE has facilitated capital formation, serving individual and institutional investors, the trading community and listed companies. As of Dec. May 2013, 2,949 issuers, which include operating companies, closed-end funds and exchange traded funds ("ETFs"), were listed on the NYSE. The NYSE operates a hybrid market in which orders are electronically transmitted for execution. Specialists on the trading floor are charged with maintaining fair, orderly and continuous trading markets in specific stocks. Floor brokers act as agents on the trading floor to facilitate primarily large or complicated orders.|
|NYSE Arca was the first open, all-electronic stock exchange in the United States, with one of the leading market positions in the trading of exchange-listed securities and ETFs. NYSE Arca is also an exchange for trading equity options. Through NYSE Arca, customers can trade approximately 8,875 equity securities and more than 152,000 option contracts. NYSE Arca's trading platforms link traders to multiple U.S. market centers. The technological capabilities of NYSE Arca's trading systems, combined with its trading rules, have allowed NYSE Arca to create a large pool of liquidity. During 2006, on an average trading day, over 822 million shares, valued at over $28.6 billion, were traded through NYSE Arca's trading platforms.|
|NYSE Arca Options|
|NYSE Arca options exchange is a hybrid options market that combines the Arca trading platform with the trading floors of the former Pacific Exchange in San Francisco and the former American Stock Exchange (Amex).|
|NYSE AMEX Options|
|NYSE Amex Options was formed when NYSE acquired the American Stock Exchange (Amex) in January 2008. It trades options on domestic stocks, American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), broad-based, industry sector and international indexes, exchange traded funds (ETFs), and HOLDRS. In addition to conventional options, it also trades LEAPS and equity and index FLEX options.|
|NYSE Liffe U.S.|
| NYSE Liffe U.S., launched in 2008, is NYSE Euronext's U.S.-based futures market. NYSE Liffe's initial products are futures on gold and silver, a franchise bought from CME early in 2008 (the contracts were part of the CBOT's precious metals complex). NYSE Liffe U.S. initially cleared the precious metals complex trades at the CME Groupthrough the end of the first quarter of 2009 and then switched clearing over to the Options Clearing Corporation on March 30 , 2009.|
On March 10, 2010, NYSE Euronext announced that it sold a significant minority ownership stake in NYSE Liffe U.S. to six trading firms and liquidity providers: Citadel Securities, DRW Ventures LLC (an affiliate of DRW Trading Group), GETCO, Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, and UBS. NYSE Euronext remained the largest shareholder in NYSE Liffe U.S., managing the exchange’s daily operations. NYSE Liffe U.S. will continue to operate under the supervision of a separate Board of Directors, chaired by James J. McNulty, former CEO of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
In April 7, 2010, the NYSE Euronext announced plans to launch a suite of interest rate futures contracts in the third quarter 2010 to directly compete for market share with CME Group and ELX on NYSE Liffe U.S. The short- and long-term interest contracts include Eurodollar futures, as well as 2-year, 5-year, 10-year and 30-year U.S. Treasury futures. Options on these futures are expected to be launched in fourth-quarter 2010. Trades will be cleared at the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation. 
Launching Eurodollar futures is not new to NYSE Euronext, which offered a version of Eurodollars in 2003. That product failed, however, when Euronext could not force regulatory action that would have allowed firms to shift open interest positions from CME Group to Euronext.
Euronext, a relatively new financial entity when compared to some of the stalwarts in the industry, was formed on Sept. 22, 2000. Euronext was the first genuinely cross-border exchange organization. Following the merger of the Paris, Amsterdam and Brussels exchanges in 2000, Euronext acquired the London-based derivatives market, the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange, and merged with the Portuguese exchange, BVLP, in 2002. As a result, Euronext now operates regulated cash and derivatives markets in Belgium, France, the UK (derivatives only), the Netherlands and Portugal. NYSE Euronext now refers to all of its European derivatives markets as Liffe.
Euronext has integrated its constituent markets based on a horizontal market model designed to incorporate the individual strengths and assets of each local market. This business model covers technological integration, the reorganization of activities into cross-border, strategic business units and the harmonization of market rules and the regulatory framework.
Euronext’s IT integration was completed in 2004, when a four-year migration plan resulted in harmonized IT platforms for cash trading (NSC) and derivatives trading (LIFFE CONNECT), providing market participants a single point of access to trading. Euronext’s IT structure was rationalized in 2005 with the creation of Atos Euronext Market Solutions (AEMS), an IT services-related vehicle between Euronext and Atos Origin.
The company formed Alternext in 2005 to help small and mid-class companies in the Eurozone seek financing. In April 2014 NYSE Euronext announced that it would wind down Alternext Amsterdam by the end of the year, or as soon as possible thereafter. The exchangae said that market participants in Amsterdam clearly preferred the regulated Euronext market over Alternext. 
Liffe is one of the largest futures and options exchanges in the world. It operates a globally distributed central order book for its products through the LIFFE CONNECT electronic trading platform and, since October 2005, Bclear, which is a service that allows transactions that are executed off-exchange to be brought to Liffe for trade confirmation administration and clearing subject to the rules of the exchange.
During the first 10 months of 2007, Liffe volume totaled 799 million contracts, up 29 percent from a comparable period in 2006. Aggregate open interest across all products as of the end of October was 83.8 million contracts.
NYSE Euronext Retail Liquidity Program
On July 3, 2012, NYSE Euronext received approval form the SEC to establish a Retail Liquidity Program, a market solution for improving retail equities trading order flow by increasing cost savings and improving prices for individual investors. The execution alternative differentiates itself from other platforms by publicly indicating when price improving liquidity is available in the markets.The program, expected to begin later this summer, will direct trades from retail investors onto a special platform where trading firms will bid to offer them the best price. The result will create two new classes of market participants:
- Retail Liquidity Providers (RLPs), services that would be required to price improvements for certain retail orderflow in a form of interest that is better than the best protected bid/offer. RLPs would receive certain economic benefits in exchange for meeting obligations.
- Retail Member Organizations (RMOs), organizations that would be eligible to submit retail orders to the Exchange.
NYSE will disseminate an indication whenever there is liquidity available at a price better that the PBBO to the Consolidated Quote System and its proprietary feeds. The exchange plans to send out semi-blind messages called “retail liquidity identifiers,” or liquidity flags, to participants. The messages divulge symbol and side, but not size or price. Market Makers will be allowed to post hidden quotes in sub-penny increments that may only be traded against by qualified retail brokers.
See More: NYSE Retail Liquidity Program
NYSE Euronext Business Breakdown by Revenue
Based on third-quarter 2007 non-GAAP net revenues (excluding activity assessment fees, and liquidity payments, routing and clearing fees) NYSE Euronext revenues from its primary business activities are represented below as a percentage of total net revenues:
- Derivatives trading accounts for 25 percent
- European cash trading accounts for 18 percent
- U.S. cash trading accounts for 12 percent
- Market data accounts for 13 percent
- Listing accounts for 12 percent
The NYSE Euronext board of directors is elected annually and made up of a majority of independent directors, an independent non-executive chairman and deputy chairman, plus a CEO and deputy CEO. Current members include:
- Duncan Niederauer, Chief Executive Officer
- Dominique Cerutti, President & Deputy Chief Executive Officer
- Jan-Michiel Hessels, Chairman of the Board of Directors
- Marshall Carter, Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors
- André Bergen
- Ellyn L. Brown
- Patricia M. Cloherty
- Sir George Cox
- Sylvain Hefes
- Duncan M. McFarland
- James J. McNulty
- Luís Palha da Silva
- Robert G. Scott
- Jackson Tai
- Rijnhard van Tets
- Sir Brian Williamson
Each of NYSE Euronext’s markets is regulated in accordance with local requirements. The merger was negotiated in such a way that no additional requirements were necessary for listed companies, in particular for European issuers who had been guaranteed the maintenance of their own regulatory framework and protection against the application of American law, in particular the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
In July 2007, the member regulation, enforcement and arbitration operations of the New York Stock Exchange combined with the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) to form the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). FINRA, the securities industry's largest non-governmental regulatory organization, is responsible for conducting the regulatory oversight of the more than 5,000 securities firms and 666,000 registered representatives in the United States.
Flash Crash Response
On July 15, 2010, NYSE Arca filed with the SEC to introduce a new price collar designed to safeguard the execution of market orders. The new collar will prevent market orders to buy stock from executing or routing to another trading venue at a price above the collar. Conversely, market orders to sell will not execute or route at a price below the trading collar. The collar for issues priced at $25 or less will be 10 percent above or below the last trade price; for issues priced above $25 up to and including $50, the collar will be 5 percent; and for issues above $50, the collar will be 3 percent. These limits also will help prevent erroneous trades from inadvertently triggering the individual-stock circuit breakers introduced last month, and are consistent with those in the newly implemented rules concerning the cancellation of erroneous trades.
The collar was the latest in a series of steps by the exchange aimed at protecting investors against a repeat of the May 6, 2010, record decline in the stock market, which came to be known as the "flash crash."
- A pilot program of circuit breakers for individual issues was first rolled out on June 11 for stocks in the Standard & Poor's 500.
- An expansion of the above pilot program to cover 344 exchange traded products plus all stocks in the Russell 1000 index is planned for later this month, pending SEC approval.
- All markets have proposed amendments to existing rules concerning clearly erroneous trades, to make the cancellation of such trades -- when they occur in connection with an individual stock circuit breaker -- transparent and predictable for market participants.
- NYSE Arca has revised its market order routing to further enhance its interaction with the New York Stock Exchange when a Liquidity Replenishment Point has been reached and other individual-stock safeguards imposed by primary markets.
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